Reference List

Reference list in APA format according to Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th edition chapter 7 ''Reference Examples" 



Book or publication part



Rev. ed.

Revised edition

2nd ed.

second edition

Ed. (Eds.)

Editor (Editors)




no date

p. (pp.)

Page (pages)


Volume (as in Vol. 4)


Volumes (as in Vols. 1-4)





Tech. Rep.

Technical Report




Digital object identifier

Arabic Numerals

        Arabic numerals (XIV) must change in Roman numerals (14). An Arabic numeral that is part of any title should remain Arabic. 


Alphabetizing Names

-       Alphabetize by surname, letter by letter.


Maria, K.

Mason, L.

Schneider, M.

Schneider, W.

van den Broek, P.

van Loon, M. H.

Von Munchhausen, M.


-       Alphabetize the prefixes M’, Mc, and Mac as is. Disregard the apostrophe.








-       Alphabetize names with numerals chronologically.


Johnson, B. III

Johnson, B. IV

Ludwig, J. VI

Ludwig, M. II

Order of several works by the same first author and different first authors with the same username

-       List of same authors must be arranged by year of publication (earlier to latest)


Butler, J. (1990)

Butler, J. (2004)

-       One author precedes multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname (even if the multiple-author was published earlier)


Smagorinsky, P. (2010)

Smagorinsky, P., Cook, L. S., Moore, C., Jackson, A. Y., & Fry, P. G. (2004)


-       References with same first author and different following author/s must be arranged by last name, letter by letter.


Garfield, J., & Ahlgren, A. (1988)

Garfield, J., & Ben-Zvi, D. (2007)

Kendeou, P., Braasch, J. L. G., & Braten, I. (2016)

Kendeou, P., Muis, K. R., & Fulton, S. (2011)

Kendeou, P., & O’Brien, E. J. (2014)


-       Arrange list of authors with same surname followed by the initial letter of the first name also arranged alphabetically.


Green, L. [Laura]. (2009)

Green, L. [Leonard]. (2013)

Wang, M. (2013)

Wang, X. (2013)

Order of works with group authors or with no authors

-    If the name of the author is not indicated, use institutions, associations or government agencies. Official names must be spelled-out. A parent body must precede a subdivision (e.g. Centro Escolar University, School of Pharmacy).


-     Anonymous can only be used if, and only if, the work is signed as anonymous. Alphabetize the entry as if ‘Anonymous’ is a real name.


                                                                            Image retrieved from

  • If there is no author, move the title to the author position, and alphabetize the entry by the first significant word of the title.
  • If date is not available, write (n.d.).
  • For non-routine information title, there are notations to be provided right after the title to identify the format of sources and for easy retrieval:   
                                [Audio podcast]
                                [CD] or [DVD]
                                [Computer software]
                                [Data file]
                                [Lecture notes]
                                [Letter to the editor]
                                [Motion picture]
                                [Television series episode]
                                [Special issue]
                                [Special section]
                                [Supplemental material]
                                [Video file]
  • When the author is also the publisher, use Author to indicate the publisher.


Periodicals include items published on a regular basis such as journals, magazines, newspapers and newsletters.


    Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Vol. No. (Issue No.), page/s. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

    Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Vol. No. (Issue No.), page/s. Retrieved from http//: XXXXXXXXX XXXX


Journal Article:

    Oh, S., Mccanna, D. J., Subbaraman, L. N., & Jones, L. W. (2018). Cytotoxic and inflammatory effects of contact lens solutions on human corneal                  epithelial cells in vitro. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye41(3), 282–289. 

Online Journal Article:

    Cross, E. J., Overall, N. C., Low, R. S. T., & McNaulty, J. K. (2019). An interdependence account of sexism and power: men's hostile sexism, biased              perceptions of low power, and relationship aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 117(2), 338-363. Retrieved                                      from:   

Journal Article with doi:

    Oh, S., Mccanna, D. J., Subbaraman, L. N., & Jones, L. W. (2018). Cytotoxic and inflammatory effects of contact lens solutions on human corneal                     epithelial cells in vitro. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye41(3), 282–289. doi: 10.1016/j.clae.2017.12.006

Journal Article with doi, two to six authors:

    Seguí-Crespo, M., Picó, J. P., Fortes, P. R., Reig, A. A., Blanes-Mompó, F. J., & Pérez-Cambrodí, R. J. (2018). Usefulness of bandage contact lenses               in the immediate postoperative period after uneventful myopic LASIK. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye41(2), 187–192. doi:         

Journal Article with doi, more than seven authors:

    Thite, N., Shinde, L., Sawant, P., Shinde, A., Ghai, M., Kharat, M., … Patel, G. K. (2018). Proactive contact lens prescribing – Which approach is more            effective? Contact Lens and Anterior Eye41(4), 389–392. doi: 10.1016/j.clae.2018.01.001

Magazine Article

    Barrientos, M. C. (2019, March). What's in the Cloud. Gadgets Magazine. 19(7). 30-31. 

Online Magazine Article

     Chan, E. (2019, September 18). Everything you need to know about the September global strikes. Vogue. Retrieved                                      

Newspaper Article

    Jaymalin, M. (2019, September 20). After 19 years, polio re-emerges in Phl - DOH. The Philippine Star. pp. 1-2.

Online Newspaper Article

    Dominguez, M. (2019, September 20). Marijuana plantation uncovered in San Juan. Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 


     Farhat, N. M., Farris, K. B., Patel, M. R., Cornish, L. Choe, H. M. (2019). Comprehensive medication reviews: Optimal delivery setting and                               recommendations for quality assessment [Abstract]. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association. 59(5), 642-645. Abstract retrieved                           from

This category includes books, reference books such as encyclopedias, dictionaries, almanacs, and discipline-specific reference books. It also includes electronically published books, reference works and public domain books available online, and out-of-print books that may be available only in online repositories.


For entire book:

    Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Place of publication: Name of Publisher.

    Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxxxxxx

    Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. doi:xx.xxxxxx

    Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

    Title of work. (Year). Place of publication: Name of Publisher.

For chapter of a book / reference book:

    Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor & B. Editor. (Eds.), Title of book (pp.). Place of Publication: 
         Name of Publisher.

    Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor & B. Editor. (Eds.), Title of book (pp.). 
         Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxxxxxx

    Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor & B. Editor. (Eds.), Title of book (pp.). Place of Publication: 
         Name of Publisher. doi:xx.xxxxxxx.
    Title of chapter or entry. (Year). In A. Editor (Ed.) Title of book (xx ed., Vol. xx, pp.). Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

     Title of entry. (Year). In Title of book (xx ed., Vol. xx). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxxxxxx.


Entire book, print version

    Schwartz, B. M., Landrum, R. E., & Gurung, R. A. (2017). An easy guide to APA style. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Book chapter, print version

    Barie, P. S. (2017). Surgical infections and antibiotic use. In C. M. Townsend, R. D. Beauchamp, B. M. Evers, & K. L. Mattox (Eds.), Sabiston Textbook           of Surgery, 12th ed. (241-280). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.

Electronic version of print book

    Townsend, C. M., Beauchamp, R. D., Evers, B. M., & Mattox, K. L. (2017). Sabiston Textbook of Surgery, 12th ed. 

Several volumes in a multivolume work

    Hume, D. (1983). 

Electronic version of book chapter in a volume in a series

Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses


For an unpublished thesis or dissertation:

    Author, A. A. (Year). Title of master's thesis or doctoral dissertation (Unpublished doctoral dissertations or master's thesis). 
         Name of Institution, Location.

For a doctoral dissertation or master's thesis available from a database service:

    Author, A. A. (Year). Title of master's thesis or doctoral dissertation (Doctoral dissertations or Master's thesis). 
         Retrieved from Name of Database. (Accession or order no.)

Unpublished thesis/dissertation

     Zhang, X. (2018). Vocational education policies in China and the Philippines: Input for the future enhancement programs (Doctoral dissertation).                       Centro Escolar University, Manila, Philippines.

    Yu, V. R. (2019). Effect of heat using direct flaming method on the dimensional stability of the slot of debonded brackets (Master's Thesis).
           Centro Escolar University, Manila Philippines

Thesis/dissertation from a commercial database

    Hunt, A. (2019). Effective human resource leadership in K-12 public education: An expert perspective [Doctoral dissertation]. Retrieved from ProQuest            Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 13862191).

Thesis/dissertation from an institutional database

   Mallini, K. C. (2019). Leadership development in physical therapy: Moving toward a community of transformative practitioners [Doctoral dissertation].              Retrieved from



    Reviewer, A. A. (Year). Title of review [Review of the book Title of book, by A. A. Author]. Title of complete work, vol., pp.


Review of a book

   Lagman, M. S. (2017). [Review of the book Sport and the American occupation of the Philippines: Bats, balls, and bayonets by G. R. Gems].                          Philippines Studies: Historical & Ethnographic Viewpoints. 65(2), 257-261.

Review of a video
Peer commentary on an article

Audiovisual Media


    Content Owner, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of Content [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx

For motion picture:

    Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture [Motion Picture]. Country of origin: Studio.

For music recording:

    Writer, A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: 
          CD, record, etc.]. Location: Label. (Date of recording if different from song copyright date.



    Mayo Clinic (2012, March 1). New route to the heart. [Video file]. Retrieved from

Motion picture

    Suzuki, T. (Producer), & Miyazaki H. (Director). (2001). Spirited away [Animated motion picture]. Japan: Studio Ghibli. 

Internet Message Boards, Electronic Mailing Lists, and Other Online Communities 


    Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx


Post from online forum or online group discussion

    Nagoski, A. (2018, November 1). Re: Sister outsider, eloquent rage and good and mad [Online discussion comment]. Retrieved from:                               

Blog post

    Ramirez, K. (2019, October 15). Understanding the power of giving [Web log message]. Retrieved from 

Video blog post
    Byrne, R. (2018, April 7). How to import blogger post into new google sites. [Video file]. Retrieved form 

Technical & Research Report


    Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Location: Publisher.


   Philippine Institute for Development Studies. (2011). Back to ABCs: Education for development: PIDS annual report 2011. Makati City: Author.

Meetings and Symposia



    Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., Contributor, C. C., & Contributor, D. D. (Year, Month). Title of contribution. 
           In E. E. Chairperson  (Chair), Title of symposium. Symposium conducted as the meeting of Organization Name, Location.

Paper presentation or poster session:

    Presenter, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of the paper or poster. Paper or poster session presented at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.



    Muellbauer, J. (2007, September). Housing, credit, and consumer expenditure. In S. C. Ludvigson (Chair), Housing and consumer behavior.                             Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansan City, Jackson Hole, WY.

Paper presentation or poster session