In-Text Citation

In-text citation in APA format from Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th edition chapter 6 'Crediting Sources' 

(Format & Examples)

One work by one author

One work by multiple authors

Group as authors (e.g., Corporations, associations, government agencies, and study group)

Works with no/anonymous author 

Two or more works within the same parentheses  

Secondary sources  

Classical works

Citing specific parts of a  specific source

Personal communications

Citations in parenthetical

Direct Quotation

Direct quotations that contains lesser than 40 words must be incorporated into text and enclosed with double quotation marks.

Reading global texts in Simeen’s classroom resembled Sumara’s (1996) contention that “reading requires moving, locating, and relocating one’s self in relation to a co-emergent world” (p.78) and involves a “continual bridging of newly opened spaces – gaps – that make themselves present in the ever-emerging intertextual fabric of lived experience” (p.78).

     Our collaborative research also seeks to look “comparatively across two diverse raciolinguistic contexts to better understand the role of language in         maintaining and challenging racism as an enduring, global system of capitalist oppression” (Alim, Rickford, & Ball, 2016: p.6)


Direct quotations that contains 40 or more words are presented in a freestanding block of text, omitting the quotation marks. In-text citation is placed right after the paragraph.


Truth and falsity only enter the scene when we raise questions about the meaning of experience.

            Truth and falsity are not properties of any experience or thing, in and of itself or in its first intention; but of things where the problem of assurance consciously enters in. Truth and falsity present themselves as significant facts only in situations in which specific meanings are intentionally compared and contrasted with reference to the question of worth, as to the reliability of meaning. (Dewey, 1906: p 118.)

In-text Citation 

      Employing a Foucauldian lens, Lesko (2012) traces a genealogy of adolescence to a time – the 1890s to 1920s – when leaders in multiple                       disciplines and institutions began to change the ways thought about youth.

      Incorporating technological advancement in psychological practice offers advantages such as ease of accessibility and efficiency (Andersson, 2016)


      Vasudevan and Campano (2009) address how the “at risk” label gets readily mapped onto raced and classed youth.

      Additionally, teachers maintain a distance between themselves and students whom they see as “other” to them (Petrone & Lewis, 2012)

Include up to five authors the first time the reference occurs. In subsequent citations, cite only the surname of the first author then add

      Lloyd, Schmidt, Khondoker, and Tchanturia (2015) reviewed eight intervention studies that purported to reduce perfectionism among those diagnosed       with a psychiatric disorder and/or exhibiting clinically significant perfectionism, thereby including both clinical and nonclinical samples. [Use as first            citation in text]

      Lloyd et. al. (2015) documented the effectiveness of psychological interventions with perfectionistic individuals, but it also included studies that did           not have a comparison group, limiting casual inference of intervention. [Use as subsequent citation per paragraph thereafter]

      Having hope for one’s client is an important concept to therapists, which is further supported by the relationship between therapists’ general                      hopefulness and clients’ positive outcomes (Coppock, Owen, Zargarsks, & Schmidt, 2010). [Use as first citation in text]

      These studies, however, have studied therapists’ general dispositional hope (Coppock et. al., 2010)

When a work has six or more authors, cite the surname of the first author followed by et. al. and year for the first and subsequent citations.

      Rates of hazardous alcohol use are the highest among adults aged 18 to 25 across the life span (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services               Administration [SAMHSA], 2017).   [Use as first citation in text]

      Whereas Euro Americans have higher rates of alcohol use and heavy drinking than African, Asian, and Latinx Americans (SAMHSA, 2017)                        [Use as  subsequent citation per paragraph thereafter]

      According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, rates of hazardous alcohol use are the highest among adults aged              18 to 25 across the life span (2017)

      SAMHSA asserted that Euro Americans have higher rates of alcohol use and heavy drinking than African, Asian, and Latinx Americans (2017)


      (“Needs for Cultural Considerations” 2019) – Use the title of an article, a book chapter or a webpage enclosed with quotation marks.

      (Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2019) Use italized title of the periodical, book, brochure, or a report.

      (Anonymous, 2016) If, and only if, the work’s author is designated as “Anonymous”.

      At the same time, denigration of the self and one’s culture and society reflect the internalization of the colonized as inferior (David, 2008; Nadal,                2011)

      Like other forms of internalized oppression such as internalized racism, colonial mentality also describes the adoption by members of an oppressed          group of the prejudices or racists ideologies directed at them by the dominant society (Choi, Israel, & Maeda, 2017; Speight, 2007)

      However, recent studies offer evidence that both dimensions of perfectionism are associated with greater psychological distress (Smith et. al., 2016;          Smith, Saklofske, Yan, & Sherry. 2017)

      For example, perceived experiences of racism and heterosexism are correlated positively with one another and internalized racism and                              internalized heterosexism are correlated positively with one another (DeBlaere et. al., 2014; Szymanski & Gupta, 2009a, 2009b; Thoma & Heubner,          2013; Velez  et. al., 2015)

      (Szymaski & Gupta, 2009a, 2009b) – Identify works by the same author/s with the same publication date by the suffixes a, b, c, and so forth, after              the year. The suffixes are assigned in the reference list, where these kinds of references are arranged alphabetically by title (of the article, chapter,          or complete work)

      (Szymaski & Gupta, 2015, 2019, in press) – Identify works by the same author/s with different publication date, arranged by year. Place ‘in press’               citation last if the work is not yet officially published.

      Macy and Johnstone (2012) suggest that it can be equally valuable to imagine a world in which seemingly insurmountable problems have already              been solved (as cited in Sherry, 2019)

      The Countess' husband has also recently died, and her son Count Bertram, a brave, handsome, but callow young man, is sent to serve the King of           France, his liege lord. (Shakespeare, trans. 2019) – Cite the year of translation being used if date of original publication is inapplicable.

      1 Cor. 13:1 (Revised Standard Version)

      (Qur’an 5:3-4)

Indicate the page, chapter, figure, or table after the year. 

      Sarigianides (2019, pp. 376-381)    

      (Kohnen, 2019, Table 4)

      Identity is a fluid and always concert with other people (Gee, personal communication, July 20, 2019)

      Gee described identity as fluid and always concert with other people (personal communication, July 20, 2019)

      (See table 4 of Kohnen, 2019, for compete data)